1a. Planck's Quantum
1b. Jumping Photons (Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect)
1c. The Compton Effect (Proof of Energy Packets)
Hindsight is 20/20. You can see the stubbornness of scientists, what Kuhn called "normal science," as you look back at history. This chapter starts by recounting J. J. Thomson's stubbornness as the Dane Niels Bohr suggested that his model of the atom wouldn't work given the recent developments of Planck and Einstein.
|Thomson's Plum Pudding Model|
What Rutherford found was that while most alpha particles passed right through foil, some actually were deflected at significant angles. His conclusion was that most of an atom must be empty, with the positive charge in an atom concentrated in a very small space in the middle (the nucleus).
Rutherford proposed a model of the atom that was much like the solar system, a heavy nucleus in the center with orbiting electrons.
|The Rutherford Model of the Atom|
|Thomson on left, Rutherford on right|