Saturday, March 24, 2018

Friday Science: Hawking 2 (Spacetime)

Last week I started Friday reviews of Stephen Hawking's A Brief History of Time.

Today I want to do a brief overview of the second chapter. The second chapter basically introduces spacetime, the theories of relativity. Here are some salient points:
  • So Aristotle thought that you had to push a body in motion for it to stay in motion. Rest was the preferred state. This makes sense because friction slows down ordinary motion.
  • But Galileo and Newton in the 1600s formulated a different law--a body in motion tends to stay in motion and a body at rest wants to stay at rest. This fact doesn't undermine God at all, but it does undermine one of Aquinas' arguments for God--God as the "prime mover," a concept Thomas Aquinas took from Aristotle.
  • Another principle that Galileo and Newton formulated was the principle of relativity. Speeds are relative to each other. If I am going 30 mph on a train in relation to the ground and I throw a baseball forward at 30 mph, the baseball will be going 60 mph in relation to the ground.
  • In the late 1600s, it was discovered that light moves very fast. 
  • In the 1800s, it was discovered that light moves at a fixed speed. At first they thought that everything was moving through some sort of ether, but Michelson-Morley showed apparently not.
  • So there was a problem. A light shone from the front of a moving train proves not to move faster than a light shone from the ground or from a space ship. The principle of relativity was in danger.
  • Einstein solved this with his special theory of relativity (1905). Space contracts as you approach the speed of light, and nothing can move faster than the speed of light.
  • Einstein came up with spacetime diagrams--time on the y axis, one dimension of space on the x-axis.
  • This suggests that cause-effect relationships can only take place within a "light-cone" that could emerge from an event at a point in time. Say light moves out from a point at a time. It spreads out in a sphere from the point. But if we diagram this light's progress with time as the z axis and two dimensions as space, the light spreads out in a cone on our diagram.
  • If you take that same concept and play it backwards in time, there is a cone of light that could arrive at this location at the time of the event. 
  • These two light cones suggest the locations that could cause an event or be caused by an event. Because nothing can move faster than the speed of light, anything outside the cone in time or space could not have affected or be affected by the event at that point in spacetime.
  • This theory messed up Newton's theory of gravity, because it connects force to distance. So if the distance changes, the gravity presumably would too.
  • This problem eventually led to Einstein's general theory of relativity (1915). He supposed that gravity was not a force at all but rather a bending of space caused by mass. So what would normally be a straight line of motion looks like it curves because space itself curves. This made it possible to explain why Mercury's motion around the sun is a little different than Newton's theory would have predicted.
So this is all stuff I've read elsewhere.

Lectures on Philosophy

My intention is to slowly accumulate video lectures introducing philosophy from one Christian point of view.

0. Is Philosophy Christian? (18 minutes)
1. The Questions of Philosophy
2. Thinking Clearly (logic)
3. The Existence of God (philosophy of religion)
4. The Question of Evil
5. What is a Person? (philosophical psychology)
6. Human Freedom
7. Perspectives on Ethics
8. Perspectives on Society
9. Perspectives on Truth
10. Philosophy of Language
11. Philosophy of Science
12. Philosophy of History
13. Philosophy of Art

Friday, March 23, 2018

6.2 The Conditions of Salvation

Chapter 6: Salvation
6.1 Predestination and Election'

6.2 The Conditions of Salvation
6.2.1 The Rule of Faith
  • The Pelagian Controversy
  • The Calvinist Perspective (monergism)
  • The Arminian Perspective (synergism)
6.2.2 What is Salvation?
  • In most New Testament uses of the word soteria, future escape from the wrath/judgment of God is in view.
  • 1 Thessalonians 5:9
  • Romans 5:9
  • Romans 13:11
  • 1 Peter 1:4-5
  • Likely proleptic references: 2 Corinthians 6:2; Ephesians 2:8-10
  • Other meanings for the sozo root: Luke 1:68-71; 7:50
6.2.3 Grace
  • Grace in the Mediterranean world (John Barclay)
  • The righteousness of God (Rom. 1:16-17)
  • Romans 3:24
  • Romans 4
  • Ephesians 2:8
6.2.4 Repentance
  • Acts 2:37-38
  • Acts 17:29-31
6.2.5 Faith versus Works
  • Galatians 2:16-21
  • Romans 3:21-31
  • Ephesians 2:8-10
  • James 2
6.2.6 Confession
  • Romans 10:9-13 (the Roman Road)
  • 1 John 1:9
  • Hebrew 3:1
6.2.7 Baptism
  • Acts 2:37-28
  • The theology of Acts
  • Matthew 28
  • Baptism in the early church
6.2.8 The Holy Spirit
  • The theology of Acts
  • 2 Cor. 1:22; 5:5 (seal of ownership, earnest)
  • Rom. 8:9
  • Eph. 1:13-14
Previous "chapters"
Chapter 1: What is Biblical Theology?
Chapter 2: Theology of God
Chapter 3: Creation and Consummation
Chapter 4: Sin and Atonement
Interlude: A Theology of Israel
Chapter 5: Jesus the Christ

2. James 1:2-27 (Introduction)

James 1:1

Introduction (1:2-27)
  • 1:2. Christians are urged to look at trials as something positive, counter-intuitive to human nature of course. It suggests that it was typical at the time for Christians to face trials.
  • 1:3. Trials lead to endurance and perfect/make complete the person enduring them... if they endure them.
  • 1:5. The mention of wisdom after the mention of trials suggests that what James primarily has in mind is wisdom to endure trials. "Lord, give me the wisdom to know how to endure this time of trial."
  • 1:6-8. If you ask for wisdom in a trial, you had better want it. A double-minded person isn't someone who has a doubt. It is someone with divided loyalties.
  • 1:9-11. James, like most of the New Testament, has a very negative view of the wealthy. A reversal is coming. The lowly will be exalted. The rich will be humiliated.
  • Important cultural background to James' valuation of wealth is the notion of limited good. In our current world, there is a sense that the gross domestic product or the stock market can grow, as it were, out of nothing. In the Mediterranean world, if one person had more, there was a general assumption that someone else had less. As an ancient Arab proverb went, "Every rich person is either a thief or the son of a thief." This perspective may help explain some of the negativity toward wealth in the New Testament.
  • 1:12-15. These verses slide from peirasmos as "trial" (1:12) to peirazo as "tempt" (1:13). These are two related but distinct events.
  • 1:12. First, there is the idea of trial, which does not have a moral component. Trials bring positive benefits but are not always brought on by an evil person or entity.
  • 1:13. God does not tempt anyone. This is an important statement of God's character. God doesn't try to trip people up.
  • There are parts of the Old Testament where God does tempt people. God tempts David in 2 Samuel 24:1. But there is perhaps a moment of progressive revelation here. In 1 Chronicles 21:1 is the same event but says that Satan is the one who tempted David. 
  • Arguably, the concept of "the Satan" was not known in Israel until after the Babylonian captivity and into the Persian period. Accordingly, the older parts of the Old Testament are less precise and ascribe all events to God's direct agency, his directive will
  • In the more precise understanding of the later Old Testament and the New Testament, God does not tempt directly but allows temptation, whether by other agents or by human desire itself.
  • 1:14-15. Temptation is when human desire draws a person toward an inappropriate object of desire. The desire itself may not actually be bad, such as the human desire for sex. It becomes a temptation for evil when that desire has an inappropriate object.
  • Temptation is not sin. Jesus was tempted and did not sin (Heb. 4:15). Adam and Eve both had no sinful nature and yet were tempted.
  • 1:15. When a person acts on that desire, first mentally and then perhaps physically as well, then it becomes sin.
  • 1:16-18. Verse 17 is especially a key verse for James. "Every good gift" comes from above. This contrasts with other possible patrons that might tempt believers. For example, we see a rich person in James 2 who might be a potential patron.
  • Patron-client relationships were common in the ancient Mediterranean world. The "haves" gave to the "have nots." The "have nots" did not earn the gift or repay it. However, there often were expectations associated with the gifts, especially a return of honor or perhaps favors.
  • 1:18. Christians are first fruits from God. They themselves are gifts from him. Language of the word possibly has Stoic overtones. In Stoicism, each of us have a "word seed" inside us. We will see more of this in 1:21.
  • 1:19-21. We get the impression that James is giving us a taste of some of the topics upon which he will expand later in the letter. Here is one--the need to be slow to speak. Chapter 3 will especially build on this idea. Some think that 1:22 is the key verse of the letter.
  • 1:20-21. Anger rarely brings about righteousness, even though in itself it is not yet sin (cf. Eph. 4:26).
  • 1:21. Here James uses the Stoic language of the implanted word. To Stoics, the world was governed by God's Word, his Logos. It was God's mind, the Reason that governed the world. We each had a seed of this Logos inside us, and we needed to heed it.
  • 1:22-27 anticipates chapter 2's discussion of the importance of works. We cannot merely hear the word. He must do it.
  • 1:25. The law of liberty is the law of love, mentioned in 2:8.
  • 1:27 talks about true religion. True religion takes care of those who are in need. It takes care of orphans and widows.

Monday, March 19, 2018

Academic Freedom Wesleyan Style

I was asked to present some thoughts today on academic freedom from a Wesleyan perspective for a faculty forum. I of course have no authority to speak but shared my thoughts with a handful. Here are my basic thoughts:

1. First, the 1940 Statements of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure made a space for confessional institutions if they are clear from the outset about who can teach, what they can teach, how to teach it, and who can study there.

2. Then I presented Duane Litfin's "voluntary principle." When a faculty member agrees to become part of a confessional institution, they are in effect saying that they can freely publish and operate within the identity of the school. The university gives them full academic freedom assuming they have been honest upon admission or do not change.

So academic freedom is not carte blanche. Nor are academics purely objective Spock-like creatures. The search for truth always takes place within a perspective. So it's not just "let me pursue truth with no constraint," as if the search for truth is purely objective. A confessional institution assumes certain frameworks.

3. The Wesleyan tradition certainly operates within orthodoxy, but its focus has always been more on spiritual experiences and loving practices.  Wesley gave us sermons rather than a systematic theology.
  • "If your heart is as my heart, then put your hand in mind." John Wesley
  • "In essentials unity, in non-essentials liberty, in all things charity." motto of Pilgrim Holiness Church
  • This suggests what has been called a "generous orthodoxy."
  • This suggests identity more as a centered set than a bounded set.
4. So it seems to me that the bounds of academic freedom at a Wesleyan school should:
  • Require a personal faith relationship with God. (heart)
  • Require submission to its lifestyle commitments, whether one agrees with them or not. A respectful attitude is arguably more important than some Wesleyan distinctives. (hands and feet)
  • Require confession of a core orthodoxy. The problem with using the Wesleyan Articles of Religion is that there are some matters like entire sanctification that are Wesleyan specific. Something closer to the historic creeds seems more appropriate. (head)
  • Require respect of Wesleyan distinctives and perspectives. A faculty member (outside the ministry school) might very well disagree with women in ministry, but they should respect the position of the school/church.
5. The Wesleyan Church is the host.
  • It owns the college. In theory, it could fire the board of any Wesleyan school and replace it.
  • Arminian theology, though, does not force agreement. It believes in "free will" of a sort. It can thus be open to some varying positions among its faculty, as long as they do not threaten the Wesleyan identity of the school or undermine a Wesleyan sense of mission.
  • It should be kept in mind that the beliefs and practices of a denomination can change a little over time. As long as it is done with an irenic spirit, it is in part the function of academic institutions to critique the status quo.

6.1.2 Predestination: Passages in Tension

Chapter 6: Salvation
6.1 Predestination and Election
6.1.1 The Rule of Faith

6.1.2 Passages in Tension
  • Election in the OT is a matter of Israel being chosen from among the nations. However, there were strangers in the land whose "salvation" was integrated into the salvation of Israel. Similarly, books like Ruth, Jonah, and probably Job suggest that the election of Israel was not exclusive--others with faith could be in good standing with God as well.
  • James 2 speaks of Rahab being justified by works, and Hebrews 11:31 numbers her among the faithful. Noah, who is before Israel, is a testimony to "the righteousness that is by faith" (11:7).
  • Abraham in Romans 4 is of course the paradigm for justification by faith and Paul uses him as such before he is circumcised--that is, before Israel exists.
  • In short, the election of Israel is a corporate election rather than an election of specific individual Israelites. It is, as it were, an election of the people and the plan, not of individuals.
The Language
  • This fact brings up an important element in these discussions. Augustine has been called the "first modern man" in part because of the paradigm shift toward individualism that he facilitated. And of course Calvin and Wesley, along with the rest of the "white" Western world, has followed suit. 
  • But biblical people were collectivist personalities. Individuals were defined by their groups. For us, groups are defined by their individuals.
  • It is thus my claim that the predestination and election language of the New Testament should be read, first, in terms of the predestination of the people and the plan. The individuals in the people and the plan were not the focus.
  • Further, the ancient worldview was fatalistic in his language and perspective. To varying degrees, it was normal to speak fatalistically without necessarily filling in the philosophical details.
The Philosophies
  • Augustine and others connected the philosophical dots, some in one way, some in another.
  • Here is a syllogism: 1) If God determines who will be saved and 2) if God wants everyone to be saved, 3) then everyone will be saved.
  • There are universalists, who accept the conclusion. But the third conclusion would not seem to be biblical (e.g., Rev. 20:15). This fact means that, in this universe, one of the premises must be mistaken.
  • We might of course note that God is outside this universe as well as within it. Perhaps outside this universe God can resolve these two premises in a way we cannot fathom.
  • Of course Calvinists reject the second premise. Arminians reject the first.
  • Perhaps we could sum up the spectrum of positions as 1) thoroughgoing determinism, including Satan and Adam (John Piper, Wayne Grudem), 2) post-Adamic determinism (John Calvin), 3) predestination on the basis of foreknowledge (John Wesley), 4) logically irreconciliable, but perhaps divinely reconcilable, 5) predestination of the plan and people, not the individuals (Ken Schenck), 6) a matter of language (Ken Schenck).
New Testament Passages
1. Romans 9 and 11
  • These chapters are not written as a philosophy essay with numbered propositions.
  • About Israel and the Gentiles--not about individual predestination per se. The response--"But individuals are implied"--often is unaware of Western individualistic glasses.
  • Since the grafted out can be grafted back in, election must not mean exactly what Calvin thought it did.
  • Romans 8:29-30 is about the plan, not the individuals.
  • It is a mystery, and the bottom line is that God can do whatever he wants (which is true). He has not failed.
2. Ephesians 1:4-14
  • The way God's people are to live is what the elect are predestined for. They are predestined to be holy and blameless (1:4). It's not about the who's in, it's about the what they are to be.
  • The plan is predestined--the elect are planned to be adopted (1:5).
  • Election language often serves an honor purpose. It looks at who is here and says, "You are the chosen." It is thus more "after the fact" than predictive.
  • In group language, it is the group that is chosen. Individual members may come and go.
3. 1 Timothy 2:4
  • God wants everyone to be saved. This verse provides premise 2 above. Cf. also Romans 10:13, John 3:16, etc.
4. 2 Peter 1:20
  • If you have a part in making your election sure, election must not mean what Calvin thought it meant.
5. 1 John 2:19
  • We may have to reckon with the possibility that some biblical authors may have talked more deterministically than others. That is to say, 1 Timothy may say things in ways that sound more like free will while the Gospel of John does not. 
  • Of course, theologically, Christian tradition thinks more in terms of free grace than free will. That is to say, there are widespread assumptions in popular Christianity that reach into how someone comes to Christ, apologetics, etc that may be more American culture than Christian.
  • These verses seem to say that there was a group that appeared to be believers ("phenomenological" Christians) who were not and that the fact that they left showed that they were not truly Christians in the first place.
6. John 17:12
  • We could find a lot of deterministic language in the New Testament. The question is how literal to take it. Is it a way of speaking of the plan? 
  • God foreknew Judas would betray Jesus from eternity past.
  • From an Arminian perspective, God sometimes uses those who have already rejected his grace (Judas, Pharaoh, Cyrus, etc...)
Previous "chapters"
Chapter 1: What is Biblical Theology?
Chapter 2: Theology of God
Chapter 3: Creation and Consummation
Chapter 4: Sin and Atonement
Interlude: A Theology of Israel
Chapter 5: Jesus the Christ

Sunday, March 18, 2018

6.1.1 Predestination and Election

Chapter 6: Salvation
6.1 Predestination and Election
6.1.1 The Rule of Faith
  • Christians believe that God is sovereign. God is in control.
  • Views of God that either 1) see him determining everything, including Satan and Adam's fall (hyper-Calvinism), or 2) see him determining nothing, as if he only tries to woo and influence the world (certain forms of open theology) both stand outside historic orthodoxy.
  • Mainstream Christian views thus believe in both a directive and a permissive will of God, although they differ in the degree to which God wills each.
  • At the very least, Christians believe in common that God has predestined the plan of salvation. He has predestined 1) that Christ would die for sins, 2) that those with faith (the "elect") would be justified, 3) that those who are justified would be resurrected and conformed to the image of the resurrected Son, and 4) that those who are resurrected would be glorified (Rom. 8:29-30).
  • There is thus a group we know as the "elect," the chosen ones, although Christians disagree on the process by which one is part of the chosen.
Previous "chapters"
Chapter 1: What is Biblical Theology?
Chapter 2: Theology of God
Chapter 3: Creation and Consummation
Chapter 4: Sin and Atonement
Interlude: A Theology of Israel
Chapter 5: Jesus the Christ

Friday, March 16, 2018

Friday Science: Hawking 1

1. I can't say that I am a big Stephen Hawking fan. Obviously I never met him. I enjoyed the movie based on his life. I like a lot of the same stuff he did. He was funny on the Big Bang Theory.

I always got the impression that he was a bit of a donkey. Perhaps that's unfair. I imagine it must be hard when you're that much smarter than everyone else not to think that everyone else is an idiot. Of course so much smartness in one area can also entail immense density in other areas. I'll let God handle all that.

2. I bought A Brief History of Time a long time ago, probably from Joseph Beth Bookstore in Lexington, Kentucky in the early nineties. It came out in 1988. For some reason, I just couldn't get into it. I never made it out of the first chapter. It neither grabbed my attention nor did it get past the atrium of my thick head.

One of the benefits of a slowing metabolism is that I can read more and more. And with the death of Hawking this week, I sense it's time for me to buckle down and read this thing. There was a second edition in 1998 with an extra chapter, which I downloaded on Kindle to be able to get any revised thoughts he might have had.

The last ten years have not smiled on Hawking's intuitions. He had bet against the Higgs boson. He lost. In fact, he made one big discovery that, in retrospect, doesn't seem so startling at all. He was just the one to put it together. He concluded that black holes "evaporate" as it were. Yeah Hawking.

3. The first chapter is called, "Our Picture of the Universe." Some in this chapter is well known to those who are interested in these things. But there are a few surprises.

Here are the main points:
  • Aristotle (300s BC) and Ptolemy (200s AD) both thought the world was a sphere, but they thought that the sun, stars, and planets revolved around the earth.
  • Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and finally Newton came up with equations that worked a whole lot better, supposing that all these things revolved around the sun, with the moon only going around the earth.
  • No one seems to have asked if the universe was expanding until the twentieth century. There was an assumption of a static universe. Why then did the universe not collapse under gravity? Newton thought by supposing an infinite universe, the pull would be equal in every direction. But this apparently is not how infinity works in this instance.
  • Heinrich Olbers in 1823 then asked the question about line of sight. In a static universe, there should be stars everywhere we look, a completely lit sky.
  • In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe everywhere was moving away from us (red shift). This brought the question of the universe's beginning into science.
  • The beginning had always been there in religion. Augustine suggested that God created time when he created the world. So it makes no sense to talk about time before the creation. As a side-note, this is the current convergence between science and faith--both believe that the universe had a beginning.
  • The last part of the first chapter has two main points of interest. The first is the incompatibility of general relativity with quantum mechanics, the physics of the very large and the very little. Hawking longed for a "grand unified theory" or, as his biographical movie was titled, "a theory of everything."
  • He also endorses Karl Popper's philosophy of science. Science should be oriented around falsifiability. A good theory is one that has not yet been falsified. You can never finally prove a scientific theory. A good scientific theory thus has two characteristics: 1) it must accurately describe a large class of observations and 2) it must make definite predictions about future observations that are not falsified.

Thursday, March 15, 2018

5.4.3 The Divinity of Christ

Current chapter:
Chapter 5: Jesus the Christ
5.1 Fully Human, Fully Divine
5.2 The Theology of Jesus of Nazareth
5.3 Jesus is Lord!
5.4 The Development of Christology

5.4.1 Models of Christological Development
5.4.2 The Pre-Existence of Christ

5.4.3 The Divinity of Christ
Christians believe:
  1. There is only one God.
  2. God the Father is God.
  3. Jesus was not the same person as God the Father.
  4. Jesus was "ontologically" God.
  5. Jesus was not the same person as the Holy Spirit.
1. The first three are easy to demonstrate biblically. We presented the oneness of God earlier under our consideration of the theology of God. Similarly, in the New Testament, it is clear that God the Father is the default reference in relation to the use of the word God, as the examples below demonstrate.

As Christians, we might argue that the Trinity is indicated with any reference to God in the Old Testament, but if so, this is an example progressive understanding. It seems very unlikely that any Old Testament author had any such comprehension. Finally, we will consider the relationship between the Holy Spirit and the other members of the Trinity in a later chapter.

2. It is thus the fourth claim that is most ambiguous in the New Testament. To say that Jesus is "ontologically" God is to say that Christ as a person literally existed from all eternity past as God. As the Nicene Creed states, he was "eternally begotten of the Father... true God from true God, begotten not made, of one substance with the Father." This is what historic, orthodox Christians believe.

The opposite approach is to say that Jesus was "functionally" God. That is to say, he did things that are uniquely characteristic of God. This approach might say that Jesus was God's representative on earth or that in some way he was the embodiment of God on earth without actually being of one substance with God. A famous approach of this sort is an adoptionist Christology, considered a heresy early on. In this approach, Jesus becomes God's Son at some point after not having been so before.

3. Before we consider passages to address Jesus as ontologically God, we should look at those passages that clearly distinguish God the Father and Jesus as different persons. Such passages include:
  • 1 Corinthians 8:6
  • 1 Corinthians 12:3-6
  • 1 Corinthians 15:27-28
  • 2 Corinthians 13:14
  • Ephesians 4:4-6
  • 1 Peter 1:2
  • Hebrews 2:10
  • Matthew 28:18-20
1 Corinthians 15:27-28 is of particular interest, for here God (the Father) subordinates all creation to Christ and then Christ subordinates himself and the creation to God (the Father). This passage is central to debates over hierarchy within the Trinity. On the one hand, historic Christianity has rejected any subordination within the Trinity since the time of Nicaea. [2]

The historic solution to this conundrum is to see the humanity of Jesus as what is subordinated to God here. Exegetically, such an interpretation goes well beyond anything Paul indicates. It is an example of the need to believe by faith that God clarified or made the understanding of the Trinity more precise in the first few centuries of the Church. We simply would not come up with such an interpretation on the basis of the 1 Corinthians text--only through the eyes of later debates. What is clear is that the person of Jesus and the person of God are considered distinct here by Paul.

All of these passages distinguish God (the Father) from Jesus the Son. 1 Corinthians 8:6 says there is "one God" and "one Lord," the first is presumably the Father, the second is obviously Jesus. Ephesians 4:4-6 is also quite clear in distinguishing the "one Lord" from the "one God and Father of us all." Hebrews 2:10 distinguishes God (the Father) as the one "for whom and through whom everything is" from Jesus as the pioneer of our salvation.

4. There are passages that we believe by faith that God used as seeds to lead the Church to full-blown Nicaean faith. The Gospel of John was especially key in this regard. On the one hand, the New Testament authors clearly understood Jesus to be the Son of God. However, we have seen that this title was, more than anything else, a royal title and susceptible to an adoptionist interpretation.

There are two or three instances where the title Lord might be taken to identify Jesus with YHWH in the Old Testament. If the "name above every name" in Philippians 2:9 is "Lord" in 2:11, then Jesus is given the name YHWH at the point of his exaltation to God's right hand. However, again here, the giving of the name at a particular moment is susceptible to an adoptionist interpretation. [1]

A much more substantial connection between Jesus and YHWH is implied in John 8:58. Here Jesus states that "before Abraham was, I am." This verse seems to equate Jesus with YHWH at the burning bush. We have already seen that the Gospel of John is very explicit about the personal pre-existence of Jesus. John also indicates the oneness of Jesus with God the Father: "I and the Father are one" (10:30). It is not clear that John himself had the full understanding of Nicaea, but these statements emphasize the oneness of Christ with God in a way that goes back "before the worlds began" (John 17:5).

5. A passage that does not contribute to this discussion is the older version of 1 John 5:7-8, still found in the King James and New King James Versions...

6. Romans 9:5 debate...

7. Hebrews 1:8-12 calls Jesus both God and Lord...

8. Titus 2:13...

9. Revelation and the worship of the Lamb... e.g, 1:17-18; 5:8

[1] Richard Bauckham has suggested a similar understanding of "Lord" in Hebrews 1:10, connecting it to the name Jesus inherits in 1:4. However, most see the name as "Son."

[2] The issue has been revived because of the question of hierarchy within the family. However, the two issues are not necessarily connected.

Previous "chapters"
Chapter 1: What is Biblical Theology?
Chapter 2: Theology of God
Chapter 3: Creation and Consummation
Chapter 4: Sin and Atonement
Interlude: A Theology of Israel

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

1. Concentrated James (1:1)

Beginning the book of James in Hebrews and General Epistles class.

James 1
Prescript (1:1)
  • 1:1. There are several Jameses in the New Testament. There is the first apostle to be martyred, James the son of Zebedee. There was "James the Less" or James the son of Alphaeus.
  • By far the most common suggestion is James the Lord's brother, the leader of the Jerusalem church. He is well known from the book of Acts (e.g., Acts 15, 21). He is well-known from Galatians 1-2. He is mentioned in Mark 6:3 as one of several brothers of Jesus.
  • James is usually considered either the son of Joseph from a previous marriage (thus an older half-brother of Jesus) or a later child of Mary (more likely, given that the children in Mark 6:3 seem to be Mary's). Those who affirm the "perpetual virginity of Mary" favor either an older half-brother or a cousin/nephew.
  • James was put to death by the high priest Ananus, a Pharisee, after the Roman governor Festus died and the new procurator Albinus arrived in the year AD62.
  • Here's the quote: "This younger Ananus who took the high priesthood was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees, who are very rigid in judging offenders… when Ananus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity [to exercise his authority]. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the Sanhedrin of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some of his companions. And when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned" (Josephus, Ant. 20.9).
  • Having said that the James in view was likely the Lord's half-brother, James Dunn suggests that the book may be a collection/"translation" of James' teaching for a broad, Greek-speaking audience. Dunn is addressing the generic rather than Jewish particular feel of the letter. The book of James does not have the more "partisan" feel of James in Galatians 2 or Acts 21 and even the treatment of works is generic rather than along the lines of "works of Law" in Paul's debates. Of course others have suggested that James was fully pseudonymous.
  • "To the twelve tribes in the Diaspora." Two choices here. Are the twelve tribes literal, to Jews scattered throughout the world? James does not really have that kind of feel. It is not really Jewish in an exclusivist way. It has a "universalist" feel, as if it would apply equally to either a Jewish or a Gentile believer. 
  • It thus seems more likely that James is considering all believers, including Gentiles, as part of the new Israel, a redefined twelve tribes. 
  • "Greetings." James certainly is in a letter format, but it is more of an epistle in that it seems to have a universal rather than a particular audience.

Monday, March 12, 2018

5.4 The Development of Christology

Current chapter:
Chapter 5: Jesus the Christ
5.1 Fully Human, Fully Divine
5.2 The Theology of Jesus of Nazareth
5.3 Jesus is Lord!

5.4.1 Models of Christological Development
The Older Consensus
  • The older consensus was that Christian faith developed from the resurrection back and that the full worship of Jesus unfolded over decades at the very least.
  • The disciples have a messianic understanding that does not include even the death of Christ.
  • Resurrection faith alters their understanding of Jesus' death and the resurrection becomes the center of a functional Christology. See the Gospel of Mark around AD70.
  • Matthew and Luke add the virgin birth in the 70s and 80s.
  • John adds the incarnation and literal pre-existence of Jesus in the 90s.
  • Nicaean faith develops over the next three centuries.
The Early High Christology Club
  • Richard Bauckham - "The earliest Christology was already the highest Christology." 1 Cor. 8:6 includes Jesus within the shema.
  • Martin Hengel - the development of high Christology was explosive and already in place before any of the books of the NT were written.
  • Larry Hurtado - the worship practices of the earliest Christians already reveal that Jesus is being worshiped alongside God the father.
  • N.T. Wright
  • Up and coming Wheaton grad, Caleb Friedmann
  • P.S. The early high Christology club doesn't mean orthodox faith. There are individuals in this group that pattern early high Christology on Jewish practice that do not consider Jesus worship distinctive.
5.4.2 The Pre-Existence of Christ
  • What does it matter? Necessary for Trinity (anything God does is done by all the persons of the Trinity). The logos/wisdom overtone would bring significant meaning.
  • 1 Corinthians 8:6 - Jesus as the agent of creation, prepositional metaphysics
  • Bruce McCormack - is this language metaphorical. Jesus is the wisdom of God. Jesus is the Logos. I.e., Jesus is the meaning and purpose, the telos of creation.
  • Hebrews 1:2. But see 2:10; 3:4; and 11:3. Is the agency of Christ in creation metonymic (Ken Schenck)?
  • Philippians 1:6-7 debate. Cf. Ralph Martin.
  • Is the background of morphe philosophical ("very nature")?
  • Is it form in the sense of God's glory (shekinah)?
  • Is it a last Adam allusion (Dunn, who does not see pre-existence in the hyman)?
  • Is it status as in Tobit 1:13 (Eduard Schweizer)?
  • Colossians 1:15 (logos background?) In him all things hold together
  • John 1 (present excursus on Middle Platonism and Philo)
Previous "chapters"
Chapter 1: What is Biblical Theology?
Chapter 2: Theology of God
Chapter 3: Creation and Consummation
Chapter 4: Sin and Atonement
Interlude: A Theology of Israel

Sunday, March 11, 2018

Chemistry AP Study Notes 7 (Bonding and Geometry)

Thus far:

1. The Basics
2. Basic Chemical Reactions
3. Reactions in Solution
4. Gases
5. Thermodynamics
6. Electron Orbitals

7. Bonding
  • Ionic bonds trade electrons. Covalent bonds share electrons.
  • Ionic bonds are a metal and a non-metal. Use the criss-cross method to figure out subscripts. These are polar bonds.
  • Use Lewis dot structures to draw shared covalent bonds. These tend to be more non-polar, although they can be partially polar (polar covalent bonds).
  • Electronegativity is the measure of the tendency to hold or gain electrons. It increases from bottom left to top right on the periodic table.
  • The N - A = S rule is 1) N -- what is the ideal filled valence electron number? (2 or 8); 2) A -- what is the total number of available electrons; 3) S is the total number of electrons that must therefore be shared and S/2 tells the total number of bonds.
  • The idea of formal charge helps you determine which of more than one possible structure is the most likely. For each possible structure, take the number of valence electrons for an atom. Subtract the number of electrons that aren't bonded and add half the number of bonded electrons. Make sure the total of all the "formal charges" on each atom add up to the actual charge on the ion.
  • The preferred structure is the one with the most zeros, especially on the most electronegative atom, without any like charges next to each other.
  • There are a few circumstances where the octet rule does not work.
Molecular Geometry
  • The VSEPR theory predicts the shape a molecule will take (valence shell electron pair repulsion). Basically, electron pairs try to move as far away from each other as they can.
  • 1) Write the Lewis-dot structure, 2) how many electron pairs are there (count double and triple bonds as a single group, 3) what shape maximizes the distance (this is the geometry of the electron groups), 4) now for drawing purposes, pretend that the non-binding electron groups aren't there and draw the molecular geometry.
  • Here are the possibilities. With only two bonding pairs, we have linear geometry (like CO2).
  • With three total electron pairs, we have trigonal planar (all three used, BF3) and bent (only two used NO2)
  • With four total electron pairs, we have tetrahedral (with all four used, CH4), trigonal pyramidal (with only three used, NH3), or bent (with only two used, H2O).
  • With five total electron pairs we have trigonal bipyrimidal (with all five used, PF5), seesaw (with four used, SF4), T shaped (with three used, ClF3), and linear (with two used, XeF2).
  • Finally, with six total electron pairs, we have octohedral (with all six used, SF6), square pyrimidal (with 5 used, ClF5) and square planar (with 4 used, XeF4).
Valence Bond Theory
  • Explains geometry by hybrid orbitals. 
  • Linear is one s and one p orbital (sp hybridization).
  • sp2 hybridization is an s with two p orbitals. This is trigonal planar.
  • sp3 hybridization is an s with three p orbitals. This is tetrahedral.
  • sp3d hybridization is an s with three p and one d orbital. This is trigonal bipyrimidal.
  • sp3d2 hybridization is an s with three p and two d orbitals. This is octohedral.
  • Sigma bonds are the straight bonds between atoms. Pi bonds are the second and third bonds in double and triple bonds.
Molecular Orbital Theory
  • A theory of covalent bonds that sees the electrons as assigned to the whole molecule rather than the individual atoms.
  • Speaks of bonding orbitals and antibonding orbitals.
  • A concept called "bond order" is half the bonding orbitals minus the antibonding orbitals.
  • The higher the bond order, the shorter and stronger the bond.
In addition
  • Resonance structures are instances when, say, a double bond isn't just in one location but moves around, so to speak (e.g., NO3-).
  • Paramagnetism is an attraction to a magnetic field due to unpaired electrons.
  • Diamagnetism is a slight repulsion from a magnetic field due to the presence of paired electrons.

Saturday, March 10, 2018

Chemistry AP Study Notes 6 (Orbitals)

The Electron Orbitals
  • So the space around the nucleus of atoms has a certain structure. The clouds of probable location take on certain shapes. It's like a seating arrangement for the electrons. As people come in, they are given the next seat.
  • There are shells of electrons, like rows of seats. These correspond to the periods or rows on the periodic table. We give them numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4...
  • Within any shell, the first two electrons to arrive fill up a spherical orbital or subshell around the nucleus, which can hold two seats. So hydrogen's electron fills the first seat and the second seat is empty. Helium's two electrons entirely fill the first shell, which uniquely only holds two. It is a noble gas because it's outermost shell is completely full.
  • A spherical orbital is called an s orbital (the similarity is coincidental). The first two columns of the periodic table are atoms whose outermost orbital involves one or two electrons in this spherical "seating." Group 1 has one electron in that shell. Group two has the spherical part of the shell full.
  • After the first two electron seats, the next group of electron seats are also grouped in twos--two up and down, two in and out, and two side to side. So six possible seats perpendicular to each other. This orbital is called the p orbital (again, coincidental). The six groups on the right side of the periodic table are atoms whose outermost shell or valence shell involves electrons in the "p seats."
  • When we get to the third row, the third shell, another type of orbital comes into play. However, it doesn't actually show up until the space of the fourth row. These are the transition metals. Ten electrons can fit in this orbital. There are 5 sets of two in interesting flower shapes.
  • Finally, there is an f orbital with up to 14 electrons. These correspond to the Lanthanide and Actinoid elements usually placed at the very bottom of the periodic table.
Quantum Theory
  • In the year 1900, a scientist by the name of Max Planck suggested that energy might only come in certain packets. So there is the base energy level, then twice that level, three times, etc. This is why there are fixed "seats" around the nucleus of an atom. There is no in between the seats. We say that the energy of an electron is quantized.
  •  The starting point for an electron is its ground state. An excited state is when a certain amount of energy is added to the electron so it jumps to the next highest state. The energy between two levels is
ΔE = -2.18 x 10-18 (1/n2final – 1/n2initial)
  • In the 1920s, a man named Schrodinger came up with a wave equation to predict the possible size, shapes, and orientations that electron clouds could have around the nucleus. This is where the s, p, d, and f orbitals mentioned above come from. These states correlate to varieties of four quantum numbers.
  • First there is the principal quantum number, which has to do with the shells, the rows or periods of the periodic table. n = 1, 2, 3...
  • Then there is the angular momentum quantum number, which has to do with the orbitals. One less than n tells you how many orbitals exist for that row. So for the third shell, there can be L = 0, 1, and 2 (s, p, and d orbitals).
  • The magnetic quantum number goes from -L to +L. So the p orbital (L = 1) has three options (-1, 0, +1). 
  • When you finally take into account the spin quantum number (two options for each magnetic possibility), there are 6 possible electron states for each p orbital.
The Wave Nature of the Electron
  • Planck suggested that the packages of energy followed the formula E = hv, where h is Planck's constant: 6.63 x 10-34 Js and v is the frequency of the energy.
  • Frequency is the number of waves that pass a point per second. Related to the frequency is the wavelength, how far the distance is between each crest of a wave. The shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency. The longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency.
  • If you multiple these two together, you get the speed of the wave (meters times cycles/second gives you meters/second for the wave cycles).
  • Einstein solidified for us that all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed, the speed of light, which is 3 x 108 m/s, which is given the symbol c. So c = wavelength times frequency or c = λv.
  • The amplitude of a wave is how high it is.
  • The electromagnetic spectrum gives us the range of frequencies that electromagnetic waves can have. Radio frequencies are the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies. Microwaves have slightly shorter wavelengths and slightly higher frequencies.
  • Then there is infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, and finally gamma rays. Gamma rays have the highest frequencies and the shortest wavelengths.

Friday, March 09, 2018

Chemistry AP Study Notes 5 (Thermodynamics)

  • Enthalpy is the heat gained or lost by a system under constant pressure conditions, ΔH. ΔH > 0 if the reaction is endothermic. ΔH < 0 if the reaction is exothermic.
  • Exothermic means that the temperature goes up during the reaction. Endothermic means the temperature goes down during the reaction.
  • Calorimetry is a technique to measure the heat released or absorbed during a change. That quantity is known as q.
  • Heat capacity is the amount of heat needed to change the temperature 1K.
Cp = heat capacity = q/ΔT (units of joules/kelvin)
  • Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat needed to raise one gram of a substance 1K.
c = q/(mΔT) (units of joules per gram-kelvin)
  • Molar heat capacity is the amount of heat needed to raise one mole of a substance 1K.
  • Hess' Law states that if a reaction occurs in steps then the total enthalpy change will equal the totals of the individual steps. 
  • You do not have to know the actual steps because heat reactions are a state function. That means that the total only depends on the beginning and end states, not on the pathway used to get there. 
  • The heat of formation of a product is symbolized by ΔHf
  • A degree to the right of the ΔH implies a standard state (1 atm, 1 M, etc). ΔH°
  • So ΔH°f gives the total heat of formation when 1 mole of a substance is formed from elements and all the substances are in their standard state. This is the standard enthalpy of formation.
  • The ΔH°f of an element in its standard state is zero.
  • The ΔH°f rxn for a reaction is the sum of all the ΔH°f for the products minus those for the reactants.
  • The First Law of Thermodynamics is that the total energy of the universe is constant. It amounts to the Law of Conservation of Energy.
  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics is the famed entropy law. Entropy is the inevitable overall tendency of a system toward disorder. ΔSuniverse = ΔSsystem + ΔSsurroundings > 0.
  • The entropy increases: 1) when the number of molecules increases during a reaction, 2) with an increase in temperature, 3) when a gas is formed from a liquid or solid, and 4) when a liquid is formed from a solid.
  • The standard molar entropy (S°) can be summed up like the standard enthalpy (ΔH°). You take the sum of the entropies of the products and subtract from them the sum of the entropies of the reactants.
Gibbs Free Energy

  • Some guidelines for predicting a spontaneous reaction are a negative enthalpy and a positive entropy. These are put together in the Gibbs free energy equation.
  • ΔG is the best indicator as to whether a spontaneous reaction will occur.
  • If ΔG > 0, the reaction will not be spontaneous. More energy is needed.
  • If ΔG < 0, the reaction will be spontaneous.
  • If ΔG = 0, the reaction is in equilibrium.
  • The standard Gibbs free energy change ΔG° is again the sum of the products minus the sum of the reactants.
  • If the concentrations or pressures are not 1, then we need the Gibbs free energy equation for non-standard conditions:
ΔG = ΔG° + ln RT Q or ΔG° + 2.303 log Q

where Q is the ratio of the sum of products over the sum of reactants, the activity quotient.

Friday Science 3f: Spin Polarization Principle

Seventh installment summarizing Susskind's, Quantum Mechanics: The Theoretical Minimum.

Chapter 1: Dirac was much smarter than I (introducing linear algebra).
Chapter 2: Quantum States (a.k.a., more linear algebra)
Chapter 3a: Linear Operators
Chapter 3b: Eigenvectors
Chapter 3c: Hermitians and Fundamental Theorem of QM
Chapter 3d: Principles of Quantum Mechanics
Chapter 3e: 3-Vector Operators

Finishing up notes on chapter 3.

3.8 The Spin-Polarization Principle
Any state of a single spin is an eigenvector of some component of the spin.

I wish I more fully understood this principle, but I will do my best. It seems to me it is saying that you're going to get a +1 somewhere.

〈σx2 + 〈σy2 + 〈σz2 = 1

This type of bracket indicates what is called an "expectation value" or the average value of a measurement. The square of the expectation value is the probability of finding a 1 there. So there has to be a 1 somewhere or the probability has to total one.

So, given any state ∣A〉 = αu∣u〉 + αd∣d〉

There is some direction 𝜎 ⃗∙𝑛 ̂ ∣A〉 = ∣A〉

3.7 An example
If I had fully followed the matrix analysis of the previous sections, I'm sure this section would be delightful. I get the general sense that he is playing out probabilities in a spherical framework. I generally understand spherical coordinates and the chart on p.89. But I think I'll skip summarizing this section and call chapter 3 concluded.

Thursday, March 08, 2018

Chemistry AP Study Notes 4 (Gases)

Thus far:
1. The Basics
2. Basic Chemical Reactions
3. Reactions in Solution

Chapter 5
Kinetic Molecular Theory, Part I
  • 1) Gases are made up of very small particles, 
  • 2) in constant, random motion, bouncing into their boundaries (which constitutes pressure), 
  • 3) with lots of space between them, 
  • 4) colliding randomly and elastically into each other, 
  • 5) with the average kinetic energy being proportional to the Kelvin temperature.
Pressure, Volume, Temperature, Amount
  • There are clear relationships between the pressure, volume, temperature, and amount of gas.
  • Boyle's Law has to do with the relationship between pressure and volume when the temperature is constant. When the pressure goes up, the volume goes down. When the volume goes up, the pressure goes down. These are "inversely proportional." P x V is constant. Also P1V1 = P2V2.
  • Pressure can be measured by a barometer or manometer. One "atmosphere" is sea level pressure. It would raise a column of mercury 760 mm (aka 760 torr-s). The pascal and pounds per square inch are other units of measuring pressure.
  • Charles' Law has to do with the relationship between volume and temperature when the pressure is constant. When the temperature goes up, the volume goes up. When the temperature goes down, the volume goes down. These are "directly proportional." V/T is constant. Also V1/T1 = V2/T2.
  • Temperature in such cases is in Kelvin. Kelvin is Celsius plus 273.15.
  • Guy-Lussac's Law has to do with the relationship between pressure and temperature when the volume is held constant. When the pressure goes up, the temperature goes up. When the pressure goes down, the temperature goes down. Like volume and temperature, this is a directly proportional relationship. P1/T1 = P2/T2.
  • Avogadro's Law has to do with the relationship between the amount of gas and the volume at a constant temperature and pressure. When the amount goes up, the volume has to go up for the temperature and pressure to stay the same, and vice versa. V1/n1 = V2/n2.
  • We can add a constant and put all the above laws into a single ideal gas equation. The constant to make everything work out is R, the ideal gas constant (0.0821 L-atm/K-mol).
PV = nRT
  • Johannes van der Waals made the ideal gas law a little more precise by adjusting the volume to take into account the fact that gas molecules do not have an infinite volume in which to move. He also adjusted the pressure part of the equation to take into account the attraction between molecules. His modified equation was:
(P + an2/V)(V - nb) = nRT

Kinetic Molecular Theory, Part II
  • The average velocity of gas particles is the root mean square speed, urms.
  • It is the square root of 3RT/M, where R is the ideal gas constant, T is the temperature in Kelvins, and M is the molar mass of the gas.
  • The kinetic energy of each molecule is 3/2 RT.
Some More Laws
  • Dalton's Law says the total pressure of a mixture of gases is just the sum of the individual "partial" pressures.
  • You can figure out the partial pressure by multiplying the total pressure by the mole fraction of each gas.
  • Graham's Law of Diffusion and Effusion states that the comparative rates of effusion (r1/r2, going through a tiny opening) are equal to the square root of the inverse ratio of the molar masses (M2/M1). Diffusion works similarly (mixing of gases due to their kinetic energy).
Other Details
  • You can use the ideal gas law to answer stoichiometric questions. For example, you can find the number of moles of a gas released given the pressure, volume, and temperature. Then using the ratios of an equation, you can solve for grams of reactants and such.
  • STP means "standard temperature and pressure."

Annual Women in Ministry Post (2018)

Roughly once a year I make an annual post celebrating women in ministry. Since today is "International Women's Day," how about today?

1. I must say I'm glad women in ministry and leadership are supported in Scripture. I'm glad because the other position makes no sense at all. It makes Christians look stupid at best and morally perverse at worst.

Anyone who says, "Men are the only ones with senior leadership skills," obviously doesn't know many women. And to say, "Men are the only ones who have spiritual discernment," is not only absurd but goes directly against Scripture. Then there's the back up defense of last resort of the person who just can't handle the obvious conclusion: "That's just how God wants it."

Tell that to Deborah or Priscilla.

I'm glad the Bible doesn't say anything of the sort because, well, I'm not smart enough to defend these positions. I have to imagine such thinking hinders the gospel in the world because it seems either evil or stupid. I have to think it has caused faith crises for no reason. What does Matthew 18 say about stumbling blocks? What does Ezekiel 3 say about requiring the blood of others at the hand of the failed evangelist?

If my plane is crashing, I don't ask, "Who is here with the appropriate genitalia to fly this plane?" I just want someone who can fly the plane. In the same way, I'm glad Scripture supports the call of women to leadership and ministry, because the other position is part of why the next generation increasingly thinks of Christians as a force for evil in the world.

That's right. We have convinced the world that love is the core value defining good and evil. And they have turned the standard on us and concluded we are evil. We think we are saving the world when parts of the world are more converted than we are.

2. There are obviously women leaders throughout the Bible. Deborah was the head leader of Israel in Judges 4-5, a higher authority than even Barak. Barak went to her for help. And she had a husband.

Huldah was the highest spiritual authority in Israel in 2 Kings 22:14. The high priest goes to her to validate the Law. And she had a husband.

These two women show that women can be both the superior political and spiritual leaders over all the men in the land.

3. What about the New Testament? Does it change all this?

Not at all. In fact, Acts 2:17 normalizes it. As we would expect, in an age when the Spirit is given to all equally, both sons and daughters will prophesy. What was occasional in the Old Testament should now be the norm in the age of the Spirit. In Christ "there is not male and female" because all have the same access to the Spirit (Gal. 3:28, notice that the wording echoes Gen. 1:27). All thus potentially have the same spiritual discernment. Women are not more gullible or deceivable than men.

4. And we see them prophesying. In 1 Corinthians 11, we see Paul instructing women to cover their heads in worship so they can be in proper relationship to their husbands when they are praying or prophesying in worship. It is important not to lose sight of the underlying assumption here. Paul is assuming without argument that the wives of the congregation will pray and prophesy in worship.

So the instruction about the veil is to create stability in what was surely a very sexually tense new experience. Women in close quarters in a house church around men who weren't their husbands! Put a veil on it so that no one is tempted. Show that you have your wedding ring on... or in this case your veil!

1 Corinthians 11 immediately puts into perspective 1 Corinthians 14:34-35, which tells wives to be silent in the churches. As a New Testament scholar, I personally think this is a textual variant, but let's assume it is original. In the light of 1 Corinthians 11, these verses can only be talking about disruptive speech.

In other words, it is not a blanket prohibition of women speaking in worship. It is part of a chapter whose purpose is to bring order out of a chaotic worship time. If the wives have questions about things being prophesied, let them ask their own husbands later instead of creating more chaos (and sexual tension) by interrupting the service, asking men who aren't their husbands.

5. So we are not surprised to find women playing leadership and ministry roles in the New Testament. In John 20, Mary Magdalene, not Peter, is the first person to whom the risen Jesus chose to appear. She is one of several women followers Jesus had during his earthly ministry (Luke 8:1-2; 24:10). They were also disciples of Christ. These women are the first ones to preach the resurrection and thus can be called the first apostles.

In Acts and Paul's writings, Priscilla is mentioned several times before her husband as part of a ministry team (cf. Acts 18:18, 26; Rom. 16:3). One of these mentions is when she and her husband discipled Apollos to teach him the way of Christ more perfectly. In other words, a woman seems to have taken the lead in teaching one of the key apostles of the early church.

Phoebe was a deacon of the church of Cenchrea (Rom. 16:1). It does not say "deaconess." The word is the same as deacon anywhere else in the New Testament. This fact highlights the tendency of some translations made by those who resist this light. There is a tendency to downplay the most obvious reading of these texts, which show women in engaged in ministry just like men (cf. Euodia and Syntyche in Phil. 4:2).

Probably the most noticeable instance of this translation bias is in the ESV's rendering of Romans 16:7. The Greek says that Andronicus and Junia were "well known among the apostles." Many have chaffed under the possibility that this woman Junia was an apostle. Some manuscripts added an "s" to her name so it would be a man's name. The ESV, as we mentioned, deliberately eliminates this interpretation by translating it, "well known to the apostles."

But 1 Corinthians 15:6 mentions the resurrected Jesus appearing to five hundred people at once, and 15:7 mentions an unmentioned number of apostles. Since this couple clearly were Jesus followers from the earliest days, even before Paul, it is quite possible that this woman was a witness to the resurrection and sent into the world to be an apostle along with her husband.

6. So why is this even a discussion? Because of one passage, one excuse for those who just don't like the idea that God calls and uses women on all levels of ministry and leadership. 1 Timothy 2:11-15.

You should never base your theology on one passage, on one proof-text, so our discussion is ended. Meanwhile, the husband-headship passages are irrelevant to this discussion. We have already seen that Deborah and Huldah could be ultimate political and spiritual leaders and be married.

If God wants a woman to lead, then a husband must obey God, because God is his head. If he resists his wife's call, it is not she who is out of relationship with him, but he who is out of relationship with God. She must obey God rather than man. In reality, almost all husbands of women who are called to ministry enthusiastically support her call.

Stop making excuses! I have thoughts on God's perfect will in relation to headship too, but I'll leave that aside today.

7. The rhetoric on this topic has got us so focused on these verses that we can't see straight. These are unclear verses! In fact, these are bizarre verses. What, for example, does it mean to say that wives will be saved through childbearing? I thought we were all saved through the blood of Jesus Christ? Christ died for the sins of Eve as well as the sins of Adam, so the transgressions of the fall cannot prevail in the redeemed Church!

The relationship of these verses is arguably the wife-husband relationship. After all, Adam and Eve were husband and wife, and they are the basis for the train of thought. Married women give birth to children. So at most this passage turns out to be another headship passage, and the question of women in ministry, again, is no longer in view.

No more passages are left to make excuses out of.

I will say that these verses--indeed all of 1 Timothy on related matters--are so uncharacteristic of Paul that we must surely imagine a vastly different situation than Paul's focal letters. Many point to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus as a reason for Paul to come down hard on those who would turn gender domination in the opposite direction of the prevailing culture. As the argument goes, women were autocratic leaders in the Temple of Artemis.

Of course, as one evangelical scholar once put it, Paul doesn't say for the husband to act like an autocrat in relation to the wife either, even while telling her not to be a dictator over him (authenteo).

8. Come, let us reason together.
  • Women are just as gifted leaders as men.
  • Women have just as much spiritual discernment as men.
  • Women are redeemed from the sin and curse of Eve.
  • There was nothing distinctively Christian about exclusively male leadership in the worlds of the Bible. The empowerment of wives and women was what was distinctively Christian.
  • To ban women from leadership and ministry is to put an unnecessary stumbling block in front of the gospel in our culture.
  • Many who oppose women in ministry may do so for hidden, quite unspiritual reasons--insecurity, pride, a spirit of oppression and domination, fear.
Therefore, women should follow whatever call God gives them, unhindered. Who are you to stand in the way of God? And the best leader should be appointed regardless of gender.

Wednesday, March 07, 2018

Chemistry AP Study Notes 3 (Aqueous Solutions)

Thus far:
1. The Basics
2. Basic Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4
Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
  • electrolyte (conducts electricity when dissolved in water); non-electrolytes
  • cations ("cats are positive") and anions (negative)
  • hydration - when substances dissolve into ions that are surrounded in a certain way by water; H2O is sometimes written over the reaction arrow.
  • reversible reactions (double arrow in both directions)
  • Some specific types of reactions: 1) precipitation reactions, 2) acid-base reactions, 3) redox reactions (oxidation-reduction). See the five broader types of reaction in the notes on the previous chapter.
Precipitation Reactions
  • Precipitation reactions (solid comes out of the reaction) is a double displacement reaction (also called a metathesis reaction).
  • solubility - how much solute will dissolve in solvent at a certain temperature
  • molecular equation versus ionic equation
  • Ions not involved in the overall reaction are called "spectator ions."
  • A "net ionic equation" only shows the species that actually take place in the reaction. 
Acid-Base Reactions
  • Acid-base reactions. Acids have sour taste (like vinegar). Bases have a bitter taste.
  • Arrhenius defined an acid as a substance that produces an H+ ion in solution and a base as a substance that produces an OH- ion in solution.
  • Bronsted defined an acid as a proton donor and a base as a proton acceptor.
  • the hydronium ion (H3O+)
  • monoprotic, diprotic, and triprotic acids
  • acid-base neutralization, usually yielding a salt and water. 
  • titration is a method for determining the concentration of an acid or base. For example, an acid is prepared with an "indicator" like phenolphthalein (which turns pink in a basic solution--7+ on the ph scale--but is otherwise clear--7- on the ph scale). Drops of a known concentration of a base like NaOH is dripped into the acid until it reaches the endpoint (turns pink), which is the equivalence point (ph of 7).
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
  • Oxidation-reduction reactions include combustion reactions, single replacement reactions, and many double replacement and decomposition reactions.
  • In a "redox" reaction, the "oxidized" element loses electrons ("ox-loss") and the "reduced" element gains electrons. The reduced element is called the oxidizing agent, and the oxidized element is called the reducing agent.
  • In a sense, you have an oxidation reaction and a reduction reaction taking place simultaneously. For example, solid zinc may oxidize into Zn2+ as it dissolves in a solution with copper +2 ions. It is losing electrons so it is being oxidized.
  • At the same time, a reduction reaction also takes place. The Cu2+ ion becomes solid copper. It is gaining electrons so it is being reduced.
  • An "activity series for metals" lists metals in an order of decreasing ease of oxidation (so the metal at the top is most easily oxidized). If a higher metal is put in a solution of a lower metal, there will be a single replacement reaction. The opposite attempt would not react.
Oxidation Numbers
  • A tool for balancing redox equations. Don't confuse them with charge.
  • The oxidation number of a neutral element is 0.
  • The oxidation number on a monoatomic ion is its charge (write the plus or minus after the number).
  • The sum of all oxidation numbers in a neutral molecule is zero.
  • Alkalis (+1), Alkalines (+2), Halogens (-1), oxygen (-2)
Other Tidbits
  • All sodium, potassium, ammonium, and nitrate salts are soluble in water.
  • Strong acids include HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HCLO3, HCLO4, H2SO4
  • Cu2+ ions are normally blue.
  • Bromine solutions tend to be reddish.
  • Iodine solutions tend to be brownish in water.
  • Carbonates (CO32-) produce carbon dioxide in the presence of an acid.
  • Many hydrides (e.g., NaH) react with water to form the hydroxide ion (OH-) and hydrogen gas.
  • Charge is written with number first. Oxidation numbers put the charge first.
  • Electrolysis is sometimes used to cause decomposition reactions.
  • A complex ion is a metal ion bonded usually with water (called a ligand). So the chromium in chromium nitrate bonds with six water molecules in water. Coordination numbers are the numbers of water (or other) molecules that serve as such ligands. The most common number is 6, but also found are 2 and 4.

Tuesday, March 06, 2018

Study Video for Physics AP Exam, Part I

This 22 minute video quickly reviews the main equations you might encounter in the first semester of a high school AP physics course. Topics include:
  • the big five motion equations
  • Newton's three laws
  • circular motion
  • kinetic and potential energy
  • work and power
  • momentum and impulse

Sunday, March 04, 2018

Chemistry AP Study Notes 2 (Basic Chemical Reactions)

To help review for AP exam:
1. The Basics (chap 1 and 2 review)

Chapter 3
Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions
  • atomic mass unit (amu) and average atomic mass
  • The mole and Avagadro's number
  • molecular mass
  • percentage composition
  • from empirical to molecular formulas
  • balancing chemical equations, reactants, products
  • molar method for calculating products
  • limiting reagents
  • reaction yield
  • five basic types of reactions: 1) combination or synthesis (two into one), 2) decomposition (one into two), 3) replacement/displacement (single and double replacement), 4) acid-base (see next chapter, yields salt and water), 5) combustion (involves oxygen).

Chemistry AP Study Notes 1

What's in a chemistry AP exam? Let me at least try.

Chapter 1
Chemistry: The Study of Change
  • the scientific method
  • types of mixtures
  • states of matter
  • physical and chemical properties
  • key units of mass, volume, temperature (know conversion)
  • density
  • scientific notation
  • significant figures
  • factor-label method
Chapter 2
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
  • Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr
  • electrons, protons, neutrons
  • atomic number, mass number, where they are on the symbol
  • periodic table, groups, periods
  • molecules, ions
  • molecular and empirical formulas
  • understanding formulas, naming compounds 
  • naming acids, bases